Aims: It is known that there are sex differences in vascular endothelial function and the development of chronic kidney diseases; however, it remains unclear whether sex differences influence the association between vascular endothelial function and renal prognosis.
Methods: To clarify the relationship between vascular endothelial function and longitudinal eGFR changes in male and female patients with cardiovascular risk factors, we retrospectively evaluated 341 patients (176 males and 165 females) with cardiovascular risk factors in whom vascular function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and in whom 24-month longitudinal eGFR values were recorded after the vascular function examinations. Associations of values of FMD and baPWV with values of eGFR slope were statistically analyzed.
Results: Simple regression analysis showed that the value of FMD was positively associated with eGFR slope in females (p=0.001) and non-smoking males (p=0.033) but not in smoking males. Multiple regression analysis showed that the value of FMD remains a positive contributor for eGFR slope in females (p=0.001) and non-smoking males (p=0.045) but not in smoking males. In contrast, values of baPWV had no significant association with eGFR slope regardless of sex and cigarette smoking.
Conclusions: In individuals with cardiovascular risk factors, evaluation of vascular endothelial function enables prediction of renal prognosis in females and non-smoking males.
Keywords: Cigarette smoking; FMD; Sex difference; baPWV; eGFR slope.