Introduction: Intravenous (IV) administration of iron is considered a safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia (IDA), recommended in patients requiring rapid replenishment of iron, or intolerant or unresponsive to oral administration of iron. Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown high incidence of hypophosphatemia after administration of two IV iron preparations: saccharated ferric oxide (SFO) and ferric carboxymaltose (FCM). The present study aimed to conduct matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) of hypophosphatemia incidence with these iron formulations and ferric derisomaltose (FDI) based on data from head-to-head RCTs conducted in Japan.
Methods: A MAIC of hypophosphatemia incidence was conducted on the basis of data from two head-to-head RCTs. The relative odds of hypophosphatemia with FDI versus SFO were obtained from patient-level data from a recent RCT and adjusted for cumulative iron dose, while parametric models of serum phosphate levels from a separate RCT were used to estimate the relative odds of hypophosphatemia with FCM with SFO. An anchored MAIC was then conducted comparing FDI with FCM.
Results: The adjusted odds of experiencing hypophosphatemia were significantly lower with FDI than SFO [odds ratio (OR) of 0.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.05]. The parametric models of serum phosphate from the RCT comparing FCM with SFO provided an estimated OR of 1.17 for the incidence of hypophosphatemia with FCM versus SFO. Combining the two estimates in the MAIC showed that the odds of experiencing hypophosphatemia would be 52.5 (95% CI 27.7-99.4) times higher with FCM than FDI in patients with IDA associated with heavy menstrual bleeding in Japan.
Conclusions: Direct comparison of patient-level data and a MAIC from two RCTs in Japanese patients with heavy menstrual bleeding indicated that hypophosphatemia is less frequent in patients treated with FDI than those with FCM or SFO. Results are in agreement with RCTs comparing FDI and FCM in patients with various etiologies conducted in the USA and Europe.
Richard F Pollock is a director of Covalence Research Ltd, which received consultancy fees from Pharmacosmos A/S to conduct the study and write the manuscript. Seiji Fukumoto received a fee from Pharmacosmos A/S for clinical consultancy work in 2021. Tatsunori Murata and Yutaka Osuga have no conflicts of interest to disclose.