Testosterone plays an important role in maintaining both physical and mental function. Age-related testosterone depletion contributes to the development of angina, arteriosclerosis, obesity, metabolic syndrome, dementia, frailty, and a range of other conditions. A condition involving age-related testosterone depletion and the associated clinical symptoms is defined as late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). LOH is treated by testosterone replacement therapy. Indications for testosterone replacement therapy are determined by evaluating symptoms and signs.