Introduction: Many individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) experience suboptimal glycemic control. Treatment intensification options include fixed-ratio combination products containing a basal insulin and a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, such as iGlarLixi (insulin glargine 100 U/mL and lixisenatide). This study aimed to provide real-world evidence of the effect of iGlarLixi in Japanese clinical practice.
Methods: SPARTA Japan was a non-comparative, observational study conducted at 27 institutions in Japan. Anonymized individual-level data from adults with T2D receiving iGlarLixi in routine clinical practice were retrospectively collected. The primary study objective was to assess the impact of iGlarLixi on the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 6 months’ post-treatment initiation, with preplanned subanalyses to determine the influence of baseline characteristics. Secondary and exploratory endpoints included assessment of the proportion of individuals achieving HbA1c targets, change in body weight, and incidence and severity of hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal events.
Results: The full analysis set included 432 individuals, with data available at 6 months for 426. Of the 432 individuals, the mean (SD) age at baseline was 61.6 (12.8) years and the majority had a T2D duration of ≥ 10 years [mean (SD) 13.3 (10.4) years]. At 6 months, HbA1c had significantly decreased versus baseline ( -0.85%; P < 0.0001), with a greater decrease in those aged < 65 years, with a shorter duration of T2D and higher baseline HbA1c. A significant increase in the proportion of participants achieving age-specific HbA1c versus baseline was observed. Mean body weight decreased by 0.5 kg (P = 0.0034 versus baseline). There were few hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal events (in individuals with HbA1c data); no severe hypoglycemic events were reported.
Conclusions: The results of this real-world study indicate that iGlarLixi may improve glycemic control without serious adverse events in Japanese individuals with T2D who have suboptimal glycemic control on current treatment regimens and switch to iGlarLixi.
Trial registration: UMIN-CTR Trials Registry, UMIN000044126; registered 10 May 2021.